Studies[ edit ] Criminologists such as Gottfredson, McKenzie, Eck, Farrington,  Sherman, Waller  and others have been at the forefront of analyzing what works to prevent crime. Multiple opinion polls also confirm public support for investment in prevention. Waller uses these materials in Less Law, More Order to propose specific measures to reduce crime as well as a crime bill. Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention.
There are a variety of different approaches to crime prevention that differ in terms of the focus of the intervention, the types of activities that are delivered, the theory behind how Criminology crime prevetion activities are designed to bring about the desired results and the mechanisms that are applied.
Understanding the different approaches to crime prevention is important, as Criminology crime prevetion are implications for determining the appropriate institutional and management arrangements necessary to support specific crime prevention interventions Weatherburn An understanding of the different approaches available and their underlying rationale and theory is also crucial to developing effective crime prevention programs and Criminology crime prevetion Eck ; Homel a.
The criminal justice approach refers to various programs delivered by police, the courts and corrections that aim to prevent recidivism among those people who have already engaged in offending behaviour and who have come into contact with the criminal justice system ECOSOC ; UNODC In this section of the report, a brief outline is provided of the theory underlying environmental and social approaches to crime prevention as these fall within the scope of the current research projectthe principles underpinning effective strategies and a brief summary of the evidence in support of the different approaches.
This information was used to assess whether there was a sound theoretical basis underpinning the interventions that had been evaluated.
While an understanding of theory was important in the selection of strategies for inclusion in this review, the CCO provides a useful framework to understand how the interventions delivered a reduction in the targeted crimes if at all and to assist the transfer of these interventions to other contexts.
Environmental crime prevention The environmental approach seeks to change the specific characteristics of the environment that may cause criminal events to occur.
Situational prevention comprises a range of measures that highlight the importance of targeting very specific forms of crime in certain circumstances Clarke Underlying the situational approach are four key elements, including: The focus of the three key opportunity theories is actually quite different.
Under routine activity theory, three critical elements must occur simultaneously for a criminal event to take place—a motivated offender, a suitable target and the absence of a capable guardian Clarke Crime pattern theory seeks to explain the influence of communities and neighbourhoods, and focuses on how offenders may come across opportunities for crime in the course of their everyday lives Clarke Rational choice theory has a more individualistic focus and explores the decision-making processes that lead to an offender choosing to become involved in crime or specific criminal events, including weighing up the relative risks and rewards associated with offending Clarke ; Situational crime prevention interventions include activities such as improved security through strengthening locks and improving surveillance.
Cornish and Clarke have classified 25 situational crime prevention techniques into five broad categories that are based on the mechanisms underlying the different methods: Important lessons for the implementation of situational crime prevention projects taken from the UK experience where situational approaches have been commoninclude that it: Despite there being limitations in the evaluation literature, a review of the evidence by Eck a showed that opportunity reduction measures can reduce crime in many circumstances with little evidence of displacement.
An evaluation of the UK Reducing Residential Burglary Initiative found that areas where more money had been invested in situational prevention rather than offender-focused prevention and those that were flexible in their delivery, were generally more successful in reducing residential burglary Hope et al.
There are some notable exceptions.
Further, the cost of establishing, maintaining and monitoring a CCTV system can be prohibitively expensive, and potentially exceed any financial savings that might result from a reduction in property crime Clancey This includes strategies that involve modifying the built environment to create safer places that are less crime prone or can make people feel safer such as by designing public spaces that encourage large numbers of users and provide greater natural surveillance, or by designing pedestrian thoroughfares that are well lit and do not create places for potential offenders to hide.
CPTED has a major influence on crime prevention policy and practice in Australia and in other parts of the world, and a number of state, territory and local governments now have specific planning policies that incorporate CPTED principles or guidelines Bodson et al.
Research has demonstrated that there is a strong relationship between certain characteristics of the built environment and crime levels, although the research into certain relationships such as the relationship between through-movement and connectivity and crime has been inconsistent Armitage a.
While further research into the impact of CPTED is warranted, there is sufficient evidence to support the application of CPTED principles, as well as environmental safety assessments more broadly, as a key consideration in the development of the built environment, including new development proposals and urban regeneration initiatives.
Social crime prevention Rather than focusing on the physical environment, social crime prevention is most commonly directed at trying to influence the underlying social and economic causes of crime, as well as offender motivation.
This approach tends to include crime prevention measures that take some time to produce the intended results.
This may include action to improve housing, health and educational achievement, as well as improved community cohesion through community development measures.
Developmental crime prevention Developmental crime prevention initiatives are becoming increasingly popular in Australia Weatherburn There has been considerable investment in early intervention programs in Australia, many of which do not have explicit crime prevention objectives Homel et al.
Transition points occur around birth, the preschool years, transition from primary to high school and from high school to further education or the workforce Homel et al. Early intervention aims to address risk factors and enhance protective factors that impact upon the likelihood that a young person will engage in future offending behaviour Homel et al.
Risk and protective factors can be categorised into child factors, family factors, school context, life events and community and cultural factors Homel et al. Developmental programs aim to identify, measure and manipulate risk and protective factors that research has confirmed are important in predicting future offending Homel In practical terms, developmental crime prevention involves providing basic services or resources to individuals, families, schools or communities to minimise the impact of risk factors on the development of offending behaviours Homel Crime Prevention through Environmental Design is a method of deterring unlawful conduct through deliberately engineering the setting in which crime is likely to be perpetrated.
In this regard, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design is a multidisciplinary approach to prevent criminal behavior. Situational crime prevention (SCP) seeks to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur.
The approach typically uses an action-research model and assumes that offenders make decisions that are broadly rational. It is generally designed so that. Situational crime prevention (SCP) seeks to reduce the number of crime events by focusing on limiting the opportunities for crime to occur.
The approach typically uses an action-research model and assumes that offenders make decisions that . Crime prevention approaches, theory and mechanisms There are a variety of different approaches to crime prevention that differ in terms of the focus of the intervention, the types of activities that are delivered, the theory behind how those activities are designed to bring about the desired results and the mechanisms that are applied.
Critically discuss the contention that criminology is “the study of the causes of crime”. Nowadays, it is easy to find crime news in the newspaper. The number of crime increase year by year because of the complexity of society.
Crime Prevention in Criminology and Criminal Justice. Crime prevention has a long history in the fields of criminology and criminal justice. Evaluations of crime prevention programs have been carried out for decades, especially in the United States (see Welsh, ).