In the present example, Table 6, the structure matrix reveals that variable Y3on function one, and variable Y2, on function two, also contain much explanatory ability, or ability to account for variance. Therefore, the explanatory ability of variables Y4 and Y3 on the first function, and variables Y1 and Y2 on the second function, are very similar. The differences between Y4 and Y3, or between Y1 and Y2, may be due to sampling error. An important aspect of any scientific endeavor is replication.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Since then, many universities have established centres for research into the sociology of sports. Prominent among the topics investigated by sports sociologists are socialization into and through sports; sports and national identity; globalization and sports processes; elite sports systems; labour migration and elite sports; mass media and the rise of professional sports; commercialization of sports; violence and sports; gender and sports; race, ethnicityand sports; and human performance and the use of drugs.
Socialization into and through sports Several questions are central to understanding the socialization into sports. How exactly are young people socialized to become involved in sports and to stay involved in them?
Why do some continue to participate actively in sports throughout their lives while others are content to watch? Different questions arise when one asks how people are changed as a result of their socialization into sports. Why do some people find their primary identity as athletes, and what happens when injury, age, or loss of motivation brings their athletic careers to an end?
The socialization process Socialization is the process by which people become familiar with and adapt themselves to the interpersonal relationships of their social world. Through socialization, people develop ideas about themselves and about those with whom they interact.
Inevitably, socialization is a two-way process that affects everyone to a greater or lesser degree. Playgamescontestsand sports have crucial and quite specific roles in the general socialization process.
The sense of self is not natural; it develops through childhood socialization as a result of role-playing. Influenced by George Herbert Mead and Jean Piaget among others, sociologists have identified two stages in childhood socialization: Children learn the difference between their real selves and the parts they are playing.
As they grow older, children shift from noncompetitive games such as peekaboo and playing house to contests such as footraces and ball games.
In the game stage more accurately, the stage of competitive gameschildren encounter stricter rules and regulations. They develop a reflexive conception of the self and its position in relation to others, and they learn to see themselves as others see them.
They become self-conscious social actors. In most premodern societies, boys were encouraged by their families to compete in sports, which were presumed to prepare them for their adult roles as warriors and workers, while girls were encouraged to continue to play noncompetitive games that prepared them for motherhood.
In modern societies, boys and young men continue to outnumber girls and young women involved in sports competition, but the gender gap has narrowed considerably.
This has been true for the private clubs that organize European sports as well as for the interscholastic and intercollegiate teams that are a prominent feature of the North American sports landscape. The role of socializer into sports has been played by many actors, among them parents, older siblings, peers, teachers, coaches, and elite athletes appearing in the mass media.
In the course of the 20th century, parents and older siblings became relatively less influential while coaches and elite athletes became more influential. In modern as in premodern societies, there is a tendency for sports participation to decline with age because of both the added responsibilities and time demands of paid employment and of parenthood and the physical decline of the body.
Early socialization into sports is the best predictor of lifelong involvement in sports. Those who disliked sports as children are unlikely to become involved as adults, while those who loved sports are likely to participate throughout their lives.
Elite athletes may be an exception to this rule. If pushed as children to compete nationally and internationally, they are liable to experience burnout and to abandon their sports careers before reaching adulthood.
The effects of sports socialization, however, are not always what the socializers expect. They are in fact quite controversial. From the midth to the early 21st century, sports were alleged to train young athletes in self-discipline, teamwork, leadership, and other highly prized traits and behaviours.
Empirical research has shown that involvement in sports can also inculcate a socially destructive desire to win at all costs. Depending on the values of the socializing agents, sports can encourage young people to play fairly or to cheat.
The evidence suggests that the propensity to cheat increases with age and the level of competition.- Sports have always been an important part of society, weather it be football (soccer), American football, or baseball.
From watching the games on TV, cheering on the players, playing the game, or even betting on a game. A Collection of Interesting, Important, and Controversial Perspectives Largely Excluded from the American Mainstream Media.
A good example of athletes becoming role models is when the American society has been classified as a whole being nationally passionate about sports. It is often joked that this pastime being so important that it is a “second religion” to many people.
According to Mark Banschkick, M.D. of Psychology Today, sports are important to society because they help prove the importance of rules.
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Sports are an essential and important aspect of American society; they are indispensible when it comes to their impact on a plethora of public arenas, including economics and the mass media Sport coincides with community values and political agencies, as it attempts to define the morals and ethics attributed not only to athletes, but the totality of society as a whole.